Singular and Plural Nouns

 

Form the plurals of most nouns by adding –s.

Singular tree river shoe pizza duck convoy
Plural trees rivers shoes pizzas ducks convoys

Form the plurals of nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh by adding –es.

Singular glass fox maze beach bush
Plural glasses foxes mazes beaches bushes

Note:  Proper nouns usually follow this rule, too.

the Gomezes the Rosses the Burches
the Walshes the Mannixes

Form the plurals of nouns ending y preceded by a consonant by changing the y to i and adding –es.

Singular sky city story party county
Plural skies cities stories parties counties

Exception:  Whe proper nouns, simply add –s     Example:  the Kellys     the Kandinskys

Form the plurals of nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel by adding –s.

Singular boy monkey tray holiday highway
Plural boys monkeys trays holidays highways

Form the plurals of most nouns ending in f by adding –s.  The plurals of some nouns ending in f or fe are formed by changing the f to v and adding either –s or –es.

Singular cliff roof thief life loaf
Plural cliffs roofs thieves lives loaves

Form the plural of a compound noun consisting of a noun plus a modifier by making the modified noun plural.

Singular sister-in-law lemon tree basketball
Plural sisters-in-law lemon trees basketballs

Form the plurals of nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel by adding –s.  The plurals of many nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant are formed by adding –es.

Singular stereo patio hero tomato
Plural stereos patios heroes tomatoes

Exceptions:  burritos, hellos, photos, silos

Form the plurals of most musical terms ending in o by adding –s.

Singular alto cello concerto soprano
Plural altos cellos concertos sopranos

To form the plurals of some nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, you may add either -s or -es.

Singular mosquito tornado volcano
Plural mosquitos tornados volcanos
or mosquitoes tornadoes volcanoes

The plurals of a few nouns are formed in irregular ways.

Singular man goose child mouse foot deer
Plural men geese children mice feet deer